IUCN Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group     ::          Turtle Conservation Fund    ::        Turtle Conservancy     ::        Conservation International     ::       Support

Pre-Linnaean Turtle Literature

 

PRE-LINNAEAN TURTLE LITERATURE

Having had a long-term fascination for ancient writings on turtles, I will be gradually compiling a bibliography of pre-Linnaean (pre-1758) turtle literature, with links to available downloadable PDF documents. Use of these document is only for non-commercial purposes to aid in turtle research and conservation efforts. These ancient treasures of our literary heritage make for fascinating reading and consultation, and remind us of how far we have come in our quest for knowledge and search for increasingly fine detail in our understanding of turtles and tortoises and their relationships.

The following bibliography is most certainly not complete. I will keep adding new pre-Linnaean references on turtles as I find them. Not all of these references have been seen or double-checked for the actual presence of turtle information, but most have been cited by later turtle-focused literature. If you are aware of additional references missed here, please inform me. Also, if you have PDF's available of some of these references and are willing to share them, please send them to me and I will incorporate them with acknowledgments. Thank you. Anders G.J. Rhodin <rhodincrf@aol.com>.

17 PDF's (9.3%) available of 182 references listed
updated 12 November 2013

 

Aelianus, C. 200 A.D. De Natura Animalium. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library, 3 vols. Transl. A.F. Scholfield.

Agatharchides. 300 B.C. On the Erythaean Sea. In: Burstein, Stanley (Ed. and Transl.), London: Hakluyt Society.

Albertus Magnus. 1263. De Animalibus. Folio

Albertus Magnus. 1478. De Animalibus. Rome: Folio. Reprinted 1749, Mantoue.

Aldrovandi, U. 1637. De Quadrupedibus Digitatis Viviparis Libri Tres et de Quadrupedibus Digitatis Oviparis Libri Duo. Bononiae: Nicolai Tebaldini, 718 pp.

Aldrovandi, U. 1645. De Quadrupedibus Digitatis Viviparis Libri Tres et de Quadrupedibus Digitatis Oviparis Libri Duo. [Second Edition]. Bononiae: Nicolai Tebaldini, 718 pp.

Allionio, C. 1757. Oryctographiae Pedemontanae Specimen, exhibens Corpora Fossilia Terrae Adventitia. Paris: Ripam Augustinorum, pp.84.

Anonymous. 50 A.D. Periplus Maris Erythraei.

Aristotle. 350 B.C. Historia Animalium. In: Balme, D.M. (Editor and Translator). 1991. Aristotle XI. Loeb Classical Library No. 439. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp.605. Books VII-X.

Aristotle. 350 B.C. De Partibus Animalium. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library, Transl. A.L. Peck.

Arnauld De Nobleville, L.D. 1756. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux, pour servir de continuation à la matière médicale de Geoffroy. Tome 2. Des Amphibies. Paris, 6 Vols.

Baglivi, G. 1700. De circulatione sanguinis in Testudine experimenta, cum ejus animalis cordis anatome. In: Baglivi, G. [Sur la Fibre Motrice].

Barrere, P. 1741. Essai sur l'Histoire Naturelle de la France Equinoxiale. Paris: Piget, 215 pp.

Barrere, P. 1743. Nouvelle Relation de la France Equinoxiale, contenant la description des Cotes de la Guiane; de l'Isle de Cayenne; le commerce de cette colonie; les divers changemens arrives dans ce pays; and les moeurs and coutumes des differens peuples sauvages qui l'habitent. Paris: Piget, 250 pp.

Bekmann, B.L. 1751. Historische Beschreibung der Chur und Mark Brandenburg. Teil 1. Berlin

Belon, P. 1558. De Testudinibus scripta dedimus circa sinem Appendicis de Quadrupedibus Oviparis. In: Gesner, C. Historiae Animalium, Liber IIII. Piscium et Aquatilium animantium natura. Zurich: Christoph. Froschoverum, pp. 1136-1143.

Berchorius, P. 1731. Reductorium Morale, sive Tomus Secundus, de Rerum Proprietatibus in XIV libras divisus. Coloniae Agrippinae: J.W. Huish, pp.644

Besler, B. 1616. Fasciculus rariorum et dignorum varii generis. Noribergae: pp.14.

Blasius, G. 1673. Miscellanea Anatomica, hominis, brutorumque variorum. Amstelodami: Casparum Commelinum, 309 pp.

Blasius, G. 1674. Observata Anatomica in homine, simia, equo, vitulo, ove, testudine, echino, glire, serpente, ardea, variisque animalibus aliis. Leoden: Gaasbeeck, 141 pp.

Blasius, G. 1676. Zootomiae seu anatomes variorum animalium. Amstelodami, 292 pp.

Blasius, G. 1681. Anatome Animalium, terrestrium variorum, volatilium, aquatilium, serpentum, insectorum, ovorumque, structuram naturalem. Amstelodami: Joannis à Someren, 496 pp.

Bondt, J.D. 1658. Historiae naturalis et medicae Indiae orientalis. Libri sex. In: Piso, W. De Indiae utriusque re naturali et medica. Amstelaedami: pp.160. [Author given as J. Bontius].

Brand, J. 1701. A Brief Description of Orkney, Zetland, Pightland-Firth and Caithness. Edinburgh: Mosman, 159 pp.

Browne, P. 1756. The civil and natural history of Jamaica. London: pp.503.

Bruins, C. 1732. Noordhollandsche Arkadia. Amsterdam: Visscher, 502 pp.

Burger, D. 1710. Chronyk van de Stad Medenblik. Amsterdam: van Hoorn, 386 pp.

Burgundi, V. 1624. Naturae Historiae, omnium Scientiarum Encyclopaedia, moralis Philosophiae Thesaurus. Douai: Beller, 2480 pp.; reprinted 1964 by Akadem. Druck. Verlagsanst., Graz.

Bussiere, P. 1710. An anatomical description of the heart of land tortoises from America. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 27:170-185.

Caldesi, G.B. 1687. Osservazioni Anatomiche Intorno alle Tartarughe Marittime, d'Acqua dolce, e Terrestri. Firenze [Florence]: Piero Matini, 91 pp.

Candidus, P.D. 1460. De Animantium Naturis. Vatican: Bib. Apostolica, MS. Urb. lat. 276 (manuscript).

Cantimpratensis, T. 1233. De Naturis Rerum, lib. VI. Manuscript, University Library, Utrecht, no. 710, fol. 113r.

Catesby, M. 1743. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. Vol. 2. London: 100 pp.

Catesby, M. 1754. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands… revis'd by Mr. Edwards. Vol. 2. London: pp.100.

Cheselden, W. 1733. Osteographia, or the Anatomy of the Bones. London: Folio

Christovão De Lisboa, F. 1624. Historia dos Animaes e Arvores do Maranhão. Lisbon, 194 pp.

Coiter, V. 1575. Supplement to the Lessons of Fallope. Nuremberg

Cupani, F. 1715. Historia naturalis plantarum Siciliae. Naples

Dampier, W. 1697. A new voyage around the world. London

Depeñalver Angulo, D.D. 1635. Derechos Que Se Percibían Para El Sostenimiento De La Armada De Barlovento En El Puerto De La Habana. In: Garciá Del Pino, C. and Melis Cappa, A. (Eds.). Documentos Para La Historia Colonial De Cuba (1988). La Habana: Editorial De Ciencias Sociales, Doc. XXXI, pp. 182-186.

Dunhamel, H.L. 1742. Sur le developpement et la crue des os des animaux. Histoire et Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 2:481.

Dutertre, J.B. 1667. Histoire Generale des Antilles habitees par les Francais. Paris, Vol. 2, pp.227-230.

Duverney, G.J. 1699. Observations sur la circulation du sang dans le foetus, et description du coeur de la tortue et de quelques autres animaux. Mem. Math. Phys. Acad. Sci. Paris 1699:227-274.

Edwards, G. 1751. A Natural History of Birds. Part IV. [Natural History of Uncommon Birds and Some Other Rare Undescribed Animals, Quadrapedes, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Etc.]. Royal College of Physicians, London, Pt. IV, 248 pp.

Ent, G. 1687. Observationes ponderis Testudinis terrestris cum in autumno terram subiret cum ejusdem ex terra verno tempore exeuntis pondere comparati per plures annos repetitae. Philosophical Transactions 16(194):533-534

Faber, J. 1628. Da Animalibus indicis apud Mexicum. Rome: Folio

Faber, J. 1651. Aliorum novae Hispaniae animalium nardi Antonii Recchi imagines et nomina. Expositione. In: Hernandez, Francisco. Nova Plantarum, Animalium et Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia. Rome: pp.460-840.

Fabricius, J.M. 1555. Differentiae animalium quadrupedum secundum locos communes, similitudinum ab animalium genere desumptarum. Libri VI. Tiguri: pp.358.

Fabricius, P.C. 1749. De animalibus quadrupedibus, avibus, amphibiis, piscibus et insectis Weteraviae indigenis. Helmstadii.

Feuillée, L. 1714. Journal d'Observations Faites sur les Cotes Orientales de l'Amerique. Paris, 2 Volumes.

Feuillée, L. 1725. Description du coeur de la tortue de mer. Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathematiques et Botaniques 3:127-128.

Feuillée, L. 1725. Pieces qui composent l'oreille de la tortue. Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathematiques et Botaniques 3:132-133.

Feuillée, L. 1725. Remarques sur quelques particularités de l'oeil de la même tortue. Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathematiques et Botaniques 3:131-132.

Feuillée, L. 1725. Remarques sur quelques parties internes de la même tortue. Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathematiques et Botaniques 3:128-131.

Flacourt, E.D. 1658. Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar. Paris: 384 pp.

Galen, C. 175 A.D. Medicorum Graecorum. In: Kühn, K.G. (Ed.). Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia. 20 vols. (Galen's Medicorum Graecorum Opera, vols. 1-20). Reprint of 1821-33 edition. Hildesheim: G. Olms.

Gauthier, J.-A. 1757. Collection des planches d'histoire naturelles. Paris

Gaza, T. 1476. De Animalibus. Venice.

Geissler, E. 1676. Disputatio histor.-physica de Amphibiis. Lipsiae: Jo. E. Hahn.

Gesner, C. 1554. Historiae Animalium. Liber II. De Quadrupedibus Oviparis. Tiguri: C. Froschoverius, 137 pp.

Gesner, C. 1558. Historiae Animalium, Liber IIII. Piscium et Aquatilium Animantium Natura. Tiguri: Christoph. Froschoverum, 1297 pp.

Gesner, C. 1586. Historiae Animalium, Liber II.  Quadrupedibus Oviparis. Frankfurt: J. Wecheli, 119 pp.

Grew, N. 1681. Musaeum Regalis Societatis, or a catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Gresham Colledge. London: pp.386.

Gronovius, L.T. 1756. Amphibiorum Animalium Historia Zoologica. In: Museum Ichthyologicum, sistens Piscium Indigenorum & Quorumdam Exoticorum… in Museo Laurentii Theodori Gronovii… et Amphibiorum Animalium Historia Zoologica. Tomus secundus. Leiden, T. Haak,  pp. 47-88.

Gumilla, J. 1741. El Orinoco Ilustrado, y Defendido, Historia Natural, Civil, y Geographica de este Gran Rio. Madrid: Manuel Fernandez, pp.580.

Gumilla, J. 1745. El Orinoco Ilustrado, y Defendido, Historia Natural, Civil, y Geographica de este Gran Rio.  Segunda impression, revista, y aumentada.  Tomo primero. Madrid: Manuel Fernandez, pp.403.

Hariot, T. 1588. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. London. Facsimilie reproduction 1931, Ann Arbor: Edwards Brothers

Hariot, T. 1590. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Frankfurt: De Bry, pp.91. Reprinted 1972, New York: Dover Publ.

Hasselquist, F. 1757. Iter Palaestinum, eller Resa til Heliga Landet förrättad ifrån år 1749 til 1752, med beskrifningar, rön, anmärkningar, öfver de märkvärdigaste naturalier. Utgifven af Carl Linnaeus. Stockholm: L. Salvii, pp.619. Reprinted 1969 by Bokförlaget Rediviva, Stockholm.

Helbig, J.O. 1680. Sur la generation des tortues. Ephemerides d'Allemagne 9/10:463

Herbert, T. 1634. A relation of some years travaile, begunne anno 1626. Into Afrique and the greater Asia, especially the Territories of the Persian Monarchie: and some parts of the Orientall Indies, and Iles adjacent. London: W. Stansby and J. Bloome, pp.225.

Hernandez, F. 1651. Nova Plantarum, Animalium et Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia. Rome

Herodotus. 440 B.C. Histories. In: Godley, A.D. (Ed.) 1990. Herodotus with an English Translation. Books I and II. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press (Loeb Classical Library), Revised Edition, pp.504.

Hesychius. 450 A.D. Lexicon. In: Schmidt, M. (Ed.). Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon. 5 vols. Reprint of 1858 ed. Amsterdam: A.M. Hakkert.

Holm, T.C. 1702. Kort Beskrifning om Provincien Nya Swerige uti America, som nu förtiden af the Engelske kallas Pensylvania. Stockholm: J.H. Werner, pp.190. Facsimilie reprint 1988 by Bokförlaget Rediviva, Stockholm, edited by Teddy Brunius with a modern Swedish translation.

Jonstonus, J. 1657. Historiae naturalis de quadrupedibus libri. Liber IV. De quadrupedibus digitatis oviparis. Amsterdam: J.J. Fil. Schipper.

Josselyn, J. 1672. New-Englands Rarities Discovered: in Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, and Plants of that Country. London: G. Widdowes, 114 pp.

Josselyn, J. 1674. An Account of two Voyages to New-England. London: G. Widdowes, 215 pp. Reprinted 1988 as "John Josselyn, Colonial Traveler: a Critical Edition of Two Voyages to New-England", edited by Paul J. Lindholdt, Hanover, N.H.: Univ. Press of New England, 221 pp.

Josselyn, J. 1675. An Account of two Voyages to New-England. Second Addition. London: G. Widdowes, 215 pp. Reprinted 1865, Boston: Veazie.

Keye, O. 1672. Kurtzer Entwurff von Neu-Niederland und Guajana Einander gesetzt Umd den Unterschied zwischen warmen und kalten Landen herauss zu bringen. Leipzig: pp.144. Translation of 1659 work published in Dutch in The Hague.

Klein, J.T. 1751. Quadrupedum Dispositio Brevisque Historia Naturalis. Lipsiae: B.C. Breitkopfium, 127 pp.

Klein, J.T. 1754. Doutes ou observations de Mr. Klein sur la revue des animaux, faite par le premier Homme, sur quelques animaux des classes quadrupe des et amphibies du systeme de la nature, de M. Linnaeus.  Ouvrage traduit du Latin. Paris: pp.108.

Knorr, G.W. and Walch, J.E.J. 1755. Sammlung von Merkwürdigkeiten der Natur und Alterthümer des Erdbodens, welcher petrolithische Körper enthält. Nürnberg.

La Font, M.D. 1731. Observation sur une tortue extraordinaire, jusqu'à ce jour inconnue, prise à l'embouchure de la Loire. Acad. Roy. Sci. Paris Hist. 1729:8-14.

Labat, J.B. 1722. Nouveau voyage aux Isles de l'Amerique. Paris, 1:304-308.

Labat, J.B. 1722. Voyage en Guinée. Tom. III, p.323

Lachmund, F. 1673. Testudo ex suo scuto, ut vulgas putat, exire non potest. Ephemerides des Curieux de la Nature (1)4/5:240

Lachmund, F. 1678. Testudo ex suo scuto, ut vulgas putat, exire non potest. Misc. Cur. Deutsche Akad. Naturf. 4:227.

Lawson, J. 1709. A New Voyage to Carolina; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of that Country. London, pp.258.

Leguat, F. 1708. Voyages et avantures de François Leguat, et de ses compagnons, en deux isles désertes des Indes orientales. London: David Mortier, Vol. 1, 164 pp., Vol. 2, 180 pp.

Ligon, R. 1657. A true and exact history of the island of Barbados. London: pp.122.

Linnaeus, C. 1735. Systema Naturae, sive regna tria naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, et species. [1st Ed.]. Leyden: pp.12.

Linnaeus, C. 1740. Systema Naturae. Editio secunda. [2nd Ed.]. Stockholm: pp.79.

Linnaeus, C. 1744. Systema Naturae. Editio quarta. [4th Ed.]. Paris: pp.108.

Linnaeus, C. 1745. Amphibia Gyllenborgiana…descripta Barth. Rudolpho Hast. Upsaliae: pp.34.

Linnaeus, C. 1746. Museum Adolpho-Fridericianum,… praesidio D.D. Caroli Linnaei…Laurentii Balk. Holmiae: pp.48.

Linnaeus, C. 1747. Systema Naturae in quo Naturae Regna Tria, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, systematice proponuntur. Editio altera auctior et emendatior. [5th Ed.]. Halae Magdeburgicae: pp.87.

Linnaeus, C. 1748. Systema Naturae sistens Regna Tria Naturae, in Classes et Ordines Genera et Species redacta tabulisqu aeneis illustrata. Editio sexta. [6th Ed.]. Stockholm: G. Kiesewetteri, pp.224.

Linnaeus, C. 1748. Systema Naturae sistens Regna Tria Naturae, in Classes et Ordines Genera et Species redacta tabulisque aeneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam et auctam editionem. [7th Ed.]. Lipsiae: Godofr. Kiesewetteri, 224 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1749. Amoenitates Academicae, seu Dissertationes variae…collectae et auctae [by P. Camper]. Vol. I. Holmiae (Stockholm).

Linnaeus, C. 1749. Museum Adolpho-Fridericianum…Museum Principis…Laurentii Balk. Amoenitates Academicae, vol. I, pp. 556-610.

Linnaeus, C. 1749. Amphibia Gyllenborgiana…descripta Barth. Rudolpho Hast. Amoenitates Academicae, Vol.1, pp. 107-140.

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Museum Tessinianum. Stockholm: L. Salvius

Linnaeus, C. 1754. Museum S:ae R:ae M:tis Adolphi Friderici Regis Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque, in quo animalia rarioria imprimis, et exotica: Quadrupedia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes describuntur et determinantur. Vol. I. Stockholm, 96 pp.

Linnaeus, C. 1756. Systema Naturae. Editio multo auctior et emendatior. [9th Ed.]. Lugduni Batavorum: pp.227.

Linocier, G. 1584. Histoire des animaux à quatre pieds, des oiseaux, des poissons, des serpens, etc. Paris.

Linschoten, J.H.V. 1595. Reys-Gheschrift van de Navigatien der Portugaloysers in Orienten. Amsteldam: Cornelisz Claesz

Lochner, J.H. 1716. Rariora Musei Besleriana. Nuremburg: pp.112.

Lozano, P. 1733. Descripcion chorographica del terreno, rios, arboles, y animales de las dilatadissimas provincias del Gran Chaco, Gualamba. Cordoba, pp.485.

Ludolf, H. 1681. Historia aethiopica, sive Brevis & succincta descriptio regni Habessinorum. Frankfurt: pp.326.

Ludolf, H. 1687. Nieuwe doch aanmerkens-waardige historie van Abissinien, andersints Ethiopien. Utrecht: J. Ribbius, pp.222

Malpighi, M. 1671. Anatomical observations, about the structure of the lungs of froggs, tortoises, &c. and perfecter animals; as also the texture of the spleen, &c. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 6:2149-2150.

Mandelslo, J.A.D. 1669. The voyages and travels of J. Albert de Mandelslo. 2nd edn. London

Marggraf, G. 1648. Historiae Rerum Naturalium Brasiliae, Libri Octo. In: Piso, W. Historia Naturalis Brasiliae. Amsterdam: pp.293.

Méry, J. 1703. Examen des faits observés par M. du Verney au coeur des tortues de terre, et réponse à sa critique du nouveau systeme de la circulation du sang par le trou ovale du coeur du foetus humain. Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mem. Math. Phys. Acad. Sci. Paris 1703:345-436.

Méry, J. 1703. Critique des deux descriptions que M. Bussiere, anatomiste de la Société Royale de Londres, a faites du coeur de la tortue de mer. Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mem. Math. Phys. Acad. Sci. Paris 1703:437-451.

Méry, J. 1703. Description du coeur d'une tortue de mer et d'une tortue terrestre. Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mem. Math. Phys. Acad. Sci. Paris 1703:451-467.

Méry, J. 1703. Description du coeur d'une grande tortue terrestre de l'Amérique, avec des réflexions sur celle de M. du Verney. Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mem. Math. Phys. Acad. Sci. Paris 1703:457-66.

Méry, J. 1733. Observation sur un lobe ou sac des poumons de la tortue de mer. Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 1666/99 Tom. 1 [1733]:430.

Méry, J. 1733. Pourquois le fétus et la tortue vivent trés longtemps sans respirer. Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 1666/99 Tom. 2 [1733]:172-178.

Meyer, J.D. 1748. Angenehmer und nützlicher Zeit-vertreib mit Betrachtung curioser Vorstellungen allerhand kriechender, fliegender und schwimmender, auf dem Land und im Wasser sich befindender und nährender Thiere. Nürnberg: Mahler, 56 pp.

Molyneux, T. 1702. Some thoughts concerning the ancient Greek and Roman lyre, and an explanation of the obscure passage in one of Horace's Odes. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. 23:1267-1278.

Monardes, N. 1574. Primerary segunda y tercera partes de la historia medicina.

Monardes, N. 1577. Joyfull newes out of the Newfounde World. (Transl. by J. Frampton). London.

Morisot, C.B. 1651. Relations veritables et curieuses de l'Isle de Madagascar, et du Bresil. Paris: Augustin Courbe, 3 vols. (307 pp., 212 pp., 158 pp.)

Moscardo, L. 1656. Note overo memorie del museo di Lodovico Moscardo. Padoa: pp.307.

Oppian. 150 A.D. Halieutica. In: Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. Transl. A.W. Mair. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library.

Osbeck, P. 1757. Dagbok Öfwer en Ostindisk Resa Åren 1750, 1751, 1752. Med anmärkningar uti naturkunnigheten, främmande folkslags språk, seder, hushållning, m.m. Stockholm: L.L. Grefing, 376 pp.

Pedanius, D. 50 A.D. De Materia Medica. In: Wellmann, M. (Ed.). Dioscorides Pedanius. De Materia Medica Libri Quinque Edidit. 3 vols. Berlin: Weidmann.

Perrault, C. 1676. Description anatomique d'une grande Tortuë des Indes. Suites des Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux 2:192-205.

Petit, F.P.D. 1737. Description anatomique des yeux de la grenouille et de la tortue. Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Paris 1737:199-237.

Piso, W. 1658. Historiae Naturalis et Medicae Indiae Occidentalis. Libri Quinque. In: Piso, William. De Indiae Utriusque re Naturali et Medica. Libri Quatuordecim.  Amstelaedami (Amsterdam): Ludovicum et Danielem Elzevirios, 327 pp.

Plinius, C. 50 A.D. Naturalis Historia. In: Rackham, H. (Ed.). Edited Translations of Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, Loeb Classical Library.

Plinius Secundus, C. 1537. Naturalis Historiae. Liber 37. Folio

Plinius Secundus, C. 1635. Naturalis Historiae. Leyden. 3 vols.

Plumier, R.P.C. 1700. Zoographia Americana, pisces et volatilia continens. Manuscript in Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris

Pontoppidan, E. 1753. Det første Forsøg paa Norges Naturlige Historie. Copenhagen: Kgl. Wäysenshuses Bogtrykkerei, Vol. 2.

Pontoppidan, E. 1755. The Natural History of Norway. London: A. Linde, Vol. 2, pp.292

Poyntz, J. 1683. The present prospect of the famous and fertile island of Tobago. London: pp.47.

Ray, J. 1693. Synopsis Methodica Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis. Londini (London): Smith and Walford, pp.336.

Redi, F. 1687. Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi, che si trovono negli animali viventi. Napoli

Rochefort, C.C.D. 1658. Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amérique, enrichie de plusieurs belles figures des Raretez les plus considerables qui y sont d'écrites. Avec une vocabulaire Caraibe. Rotterdam: Arn. Leers, pp.527.

Rochefort, C.C.D. 1665. Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amérique.  Enrichie d'un grand nombre de belles figures en taille douce, des places & des raretez les plus considerables, qui y sont décrits. Avec une vocabulaire Caraïbe. 2d ed. Rotterdam: Arn. Leers, pp.583.

Rochefort, C.C.D. 1666. History of the Caribby islands, 1658-1666. London.

Rochefort, C.C.D. 1681. Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amerique. Rotterdam, 3rd Ed., pp.245-249.

Rondelet, G. 1554. Libri de Piscibus Marinis, in quibus verae Piscium effigies expressae sunt. Lugduni: Matthiam Bonhomme, 583 pp.

Rondelet, G. 1555. Universae aquatilium Historiae pars altera, cum veris ipsorum Imaginibus. Lugduni: Matthiam Bonhomme, 242 pp.

Rondelet, G. 1558. L'Histoire Entiere des Poissons. La Premiere Partie. Lyon:  M. Bonhomme, 418 pp.

Rondelet, G. 1558. De testudinibus scripta hoc ordine sequuntur. In: Gesner, C. Historiae Animalium, Liber IIII. Piscium et Aquatilium animantium natura. Zurich: Christoph. Froschoverum, pp. 1130-1136.

Rondelet, G. 1558. L'Histoire Entiere des Poissons. La Deuxieme Partie. Lyon:  M. Bonhomme.

Scaliger, J.C. 1619. Aristotelis historia de animalibus Scaligero interprete cum commentariis. Toulouse.

Schmidel, U. 1599. Verissima et iucundissima descriptio. In: Bry, Theodor de (Ed.). Americae, pars VII. Frankfurt.

Schmidel, U. 1602. Vierte Schiffart. Noribergae

Schmidel, U. 1749. Historia y descubrimiento del Rio de La Plata y Paraguay. In: Barcia, A.G. de. Historiadores Primitivos de las Indias Occidentales. Madrid.

Schwenkfeld, C. 1603. Theriotropheum Silesiae, in quo animalium H.E. Quadrupedum, Reptilium, Avium, Piscium et Insectorum natura, vis et usus sex libris prestringuntur. Lignicii [Liegnitz].

Seba, A. 1734. Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio, et Iconibus Artificiosissimis Expressio, per Universam Physices Historiam. Tomus I. Amstelaedami [Amsterdam]:  J. Wetstenium, Gul. Smith, and Janssonio Waesbergios, 178 pp.

Seba, A. 1735. Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio, et Iconibus Artificiosissimis Expressio, per Universam Physices Historiam. Tomus II. Amsterdam:  Waesberg.

Severino, M.A. 1645. Zootomia democritaea. Noribergae: Endteriamus, pp.408.

Sibbald, R. 1684. Scotia Illustrata sive Prodromus Historiae Naturalis. Pars secunda specialis. Tomus secundus.  De Animalibus Scotiae. Edinburgh: Jacobi Kniblo, 37 pp.

Sibbald, R. 1697. Auctuarium Musaei Balfouriani Musaeo Sibbaldiano sive Enumeratio et Descriptio Rerum Rariorum. Edinburgi, pp.216

Sloane, H. 1707. A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbadoes, Nieves, St. Christophers, and Jamaica; with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four footed beasts, fishes, birds, insectes, reptiles, etc., of the last of those islands. Vol. 1. London, pp.264.

Sloane, H. 1725. A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbadoes, Nieves, St. Christophers, and Jamaica; with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four footed beasts, fishes, birds, insectes, reptiles, etc., of the last of those islands. Vol. 2. London, pp.499

Smith, J. 1612. A Map of Virginia, with a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion. Oxford: Joseph Barnes, 39 pp.

Stobaeus, K. 1730. Descriptio Testudinis americanae terrestris; forte Jaboti Brasiliensibus, cagado de terra Lusitanis dictae, Marcgravii. Acta Literaria et Scient. Sveciae 3:58-62.

Stobaeus, K. 1730. Description d'une tortue terrestre qui parait etre la geometrique, appellee tesselata. Acta Literaria et Scient. Sveciae 3:8

Strabo. 20 B.C. Geography. In: Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Transl. H.L. Jones, 8 vols.

Stubbe, H. 1667. Observables about Tortoises. Philosophical Transactions 1667:493-500.

Taffort, J. 1726. Relation de l'Isle Rodrigue. MS, Archives nationales, Paris, et in  Nouveaux documents sur l'époque de la disparition de la faune ancienne de l'îsle Rodrigue, A. Milnes Edwards, 1875.  Ann. Soc. Nat., Paris (6)II(4):1-20.

Toller, W. 1715. The history of a voyage to the river of Plate and Buenos Ayres from England, anno MDCCXV. In: Toller, W. 1955. Viaje de William Toller a la Banda Oriental y Rio de la Plata en 1715.  Montevideo: Fac. Human. Cienc. pp.82.

Topsell, E. 1658. The history of four-footed beasts and serpents, collected out of the writings of Conradus Gesner and other authors. London: pp.1130.

Trapham, T. 1679. A discourse of the state of health in the island of Jamaica. London: pp.149.

Valentijn, F. 1726. Verhandeling der Dieren van Amboina. In: Valentijn, F.  Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indien.  Vol.3. pp.263-297.  Amsterdam.

Valentini, M.B. 1720. Amphitheatrum zootomicum.  Vol. I. Gissae: pp.231.

Van Berkel, A. 1695. Amerikaansche voyagien. Amsterdam: pp.139

Velschius, G.J. 1649. L'anatomie de la tortue des bois. Memoires des Curieux de la Nature, Centurie I, observat. 47, p. 62

Wafer, L. 1699. A new voyage and description of the isthmus of America. London: James Knapton.

Wallace, J. 1693. A description of the Isles of Orkney, to which is added an essay concerning the Thule of the ancients. Edinburgh: Reid, pp.94.

Warren, G. 1667. An impartial description of Surinam upon the continent of Guiana in America, with a history of several strange birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and customs of that colony. London, 28 pp.

Wood, W. 1635. New England's Prospect. Second Edition. Reprinted 1977, edited by Alden T. Vaughan. Amherst: Univ. Massachusetts Press, pp.132.

Woodward. 1726. Natural History of the Earth Illustrated. London

Woodward. 1735. Geographica Physica ex versione Gallica. Amsterdam: D. Niceron and Noguez.

Worm, O. 1655. Museum Wormianum seu Historia Rerum Rariorum. Amstelodami (Amsterdam): Lugdunum Batavorum, pp.389.